El debate de los expertos en bosques: Exóticos vs. nativos

Biólogos, ecólogos e ingenieros forestales se han visto envueltos en una discusión sobre cuánto influyeron las plantaciones de eucaliptos y pinos en los actuales incendios, en comparación con los bosques nativos de Chile. De los 32 expertos entrevistados, 25 afirmaron con seguridad que el abuso de los monocultivos exóticos sí es un factor importante en los incendios forestales.

“Yo emplazo a la gente que llega y opina a un debate público. Para hablar de esto hay que poner estudios sobre la mesa”, expreso Antonio Lara, presidente de Fundación FORECOS y profesor de la UACH.

Fuente La Tercera 

Autor: Tania Opazo

Gran parte del tiempo las conversaciones y debates entre los científicos se dan silenciosamente en congresos y publicaciones académicas. Pero de vez en cuando algún acontecimiento los saca de sus oficinas y laboratorios. Este verano, como nunca, está siendo el turno de los expertos en bosques, que aparecieron en radios, canales de televisión y diarios tratando de explicar un desastre ecológico que parece incomprensible.

“Tengo mucho sueño y cansancio acumulado”, dice en un correo que llega a las tres de la madrugada Miguel Castillo, investigador del Laboratorio de Incendios Forestales de U. de Chile, tras varios días en terreno y entrevistas a numerosos medios. Él y su colega Roberto Garfias son protagonistas de una polémica que aún no se zanja entre quienes acusan que los cultivos de pino y eucaliptos habrían sido un factor que facilitó la propagación del fuego, comparado con el bosque autóctono, más heterogéneo en su composición: “La realidad es que no tienen ninguna base científica para sostener que las plantaciones forestales tienen que ver con la magnitud del incendio. El poder calórico de las especies exóticas (pinos y eucaliptos) no dista mucho del que tienen las del bosque nativo”, dijo Garfias a The Clinic el 29 de enero en una nota cuyo título comenzaba con la palabra “Cazamitos”.

La publicación agitó a la comunidad científica. “La ‘desinformación’ de estos colegas del laboratorio de incendios es curiosa”, dice Mauro González, del Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio de la U. Austral (UACH). “Si bien no hay estudios que comparen inflamabilidad de nativas y exóticas de forma adecuada (el estudio de Eduardo Peña –Universidad de Concepción– al que se acoge la Corporación Chilena de la madera, Corma, y el Colegio de Ingenieros es muy limitado), la evidencia indirecta es pasmosa. Es como un crimen, en el que aunque no ves al asesino, la evidencia te lleva hacia él”, dice Susana Gómez, investigadora del Centro de Ciencia del Clima y la Resiliencia (CR)2 de la U. de Chile.

Para Osvaldo Vidal, profesor de la U. de Magallanes que ha trabajado en la restauración ecológica de Torres del Paine tras el incendio de 2012, esta aparente falta de acuerdo “no es científica, sino política”.

“Es decepcionante sostener lo insostenible, desinformando sin complejos a la ciudadanía con noticias que tanto daño le hacen a nuestra profesión de ingenieros forestales”, agrega Carlos Zamorano, doctor en Ecología y profesor de la UACH. Sin embargo, también hay varios expertos que afirman que es un error “demonizar” los monocultivos (plantaciones de un solo tipo de árbol), ya que la industria forestal es parte importantísima de la economía del país y porque, al final, en un incendio de gran magnitud como los recientes, todo se quema.

Según Eduardo Arellano, profesor del Laboratorio de Restauración Ecológica de la UC, “por un lado están los investigadores que vienen de la ecología, y en otro los de la parte forestal o industrial, dentro la misma academia”, ambos con teorías en que se hace referencia a otras partes del mundo pero que no necesariamente se han comprobado en Chile, explica, porque aquí no hay grupos específicos trabajando en incendios.

“La propagación del fuego nada tiene que ver con los pinos ni los eucaliptos ni los bosques nativos, ellos son meros espectadores de la gestión del modelo imperante, que no protege con eficacia sus recursos naturales, ni con la debida dignidad a sus ciudadanos”, agrega Víctor Gerding, doctor en Ciencias Forestales de la UACH.

Árboles buenos y malos

“Un monocultivo de pinos o eucaliptos no es un bosque”, es la primera corrección que hace cualquier ecólogo al hablar de este tema. Un bosque es un sistema ecológico complejo con una diversidad de especies de distintas edades. Esa variedad, afirman los expertos, les permitiría a los bosques retener más humedad y quemarse más lento.

En cambio, una plantación se conforma de árboles de la misma especie y edad que se colocan en un terreno en la mayor cantidad posible (incluso 1.600 árboles por hectárea), para luego ser cortados y vendidos. Esa misma densidad y homogeneidad, agregado a ciertas características de estas especies, harían que las plantaciones se quemen más rápido y con más intensidad. “En una sola hectárea tenemos muchísimo más combustible que en un bosque nativo”, dice Mylthon Jiménez, doctor en Ciencias Biológicas de la UACH.

Los pinos y eucaliptos comenzaron a instalarse en nuestro paisaje con más fuerza en la década del 70, en su inicio para cubrir terrenos agrícolas que estaban fuertemente erosionados. Los investigadores afirman que colocar estos árboles, que se adaptan incluso en suelos muy dañados, fue en beneficio del terreno, protegiéndolos de una aún mayor degradación. Además crecen muy rápido, lo que es ventajoso para quienes quieren explotarlos, aunque para ello absorben mucha agua (lo que algunos afirman provocaría sequías). Los ecólogos los catalogan como “especies pirófitas”, lo que significa que están naturalmente adaptados al fuego teniendo ventajas en su supervivencia frente a otros árboles y arbustos al ocurrir un incendio. Y lo más importante: se les acusa de ser altamente inflamables.

“No es que ellos sean malos ni se tomen el agua para dejar secos al resto. Ambos son invitados a un ecosistema al que no pertenecen donde despliegan mecanismos para ser ellos los que se reproduzcan. Por ejemplo, tienen compuestos en sus hojas que inhiben el desarrollo de otro tipo de vegetación”, dice Sergio Donoso, profesor de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales de la U. de Chile.

El profesor de la U. de Vigo, España, Adolfo Cordero, cuenta que el mismo debate se está dando en Galicia. “Aquí también se ha optado por plantar pinos y eucaliptos sin control y ahora tenemos el récord de incendios en Europa. Afirmar que no hay ninguna relación entre los incendios y el hecho de que extensiones enormes de tierra se planten con especies de árboles pirófitas; es sencillamente erróneo y contrario a la evidencia científica”. Algo con lo que concuerda Dave McWeathy, profesor de la U. de Montana, quien afirma que varias especies de eucaliptos han sido catalogadas entre las más inflamables del planeta.

Sin embargo, no todos concuerdan con que, en el caso de los recientes incendios, esto haya realmente incidido. “En condiciones del triángulo climático crítico (más de 30 °C de temperatura, menos de 30 por ciento de humedad relativa y más de 30 km/hora de velocidad del viento) como se manifestó desde mitades de diciembre en la zona mediterránea de Chile, las diferencias en combustibilidad entre especies o tipos de bosques son prácticamente irrelevantes”, dice Juan Schlatter, de la Facultad de Ciencias Forestales UACH.

Para el profesor Klaus Puettmann, de la U. Estatal de Oregon, son tantos los factores que entran en la discusión que es casi imposible generalizar. Aun así afirma que las plantaciones jóvenes (de menos de cinco años) probablemente son menos inflamables que los bosques nativos, ya que la carga de combustible es muy baja. “Después de eso, las plantaciones pueden ser más resistentes a los incendios superficiales de baja intensidad, pero muy susceptibles a los de alta severidad (como los que actualmente suceden en Chile), ya que sus densos techos contiguos permiten que el fuego viaje rápidamente a lo largo de las plantaciones”.

El investigador del Centro de Cambio Global UC, Horacio Gilabert, afirma que un estudio publicado el año pasado en la revista International Journal of Wildland Fire comprueba que el pino radiata, que se planta en Chile, es una especie de inflamabilidad baja/moderada y que de los eucaliptos se ha confirmado que es muy inflamable la especie viminalis, pero no la globulus, que se explota mayoritariamente en nuestro país.

Efectivamente son especies pirófitas que han evolucionado en un ambiente donde el fuego es una alteración recurrente, pero eso no significa que sean inflamables como algunos colegas han expresado. En el caso de los incendios de este verano, no hace mucha diferencia si era plantación o bosque nativo, ambas formaciones se habrían incendiado igual y de hecho fue así. La afirmación de que estos incendios fueron favorecidos por la existencia de hectáreas y hectáreas de monocultivos (léase plantaciones) es demasiado general para ser tomada en serio”.

Pero quienes han experimentado de cerca los incendios en sus zonas no tienen cuestionamientos. “Hemos llegado a un consenso en Valparaíso de que las especies introducidas no se adaptaron y complicaron nuestra diversidad, siendo fuertes demandadoras de agua”, dice Luis Álvarez, director del Instituto de Geografía de la PUCV. “Existe suficiente evidencia para señalar que las cuencas que se encuentran dominadas por plantaciones forestales contienen menos humedad en los meses de verano (cuando se producen los incendios), que las dominadas por bosque nativo”, agrega Alejandro Miranda, del Laboratorio de Ecología del Paisaje Forestal de la U. de la Frontera.

Según Aurora Gaxiola, profesora de la Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas UC, el debate es confuso en parte porque el tema simplemente no se ha estudiado a fondo: si se buscan estudios sobre tópicos como “flamabilidad” y dinámica de fuego en Chile, no se encuentran más de 170 artículos, y el estudio más antiguo es de 1993. “Es decir, aún hay mucho por investigar y hacer”.

Después del fuego

En estos días se realiza en Sevilla, España, la reunión sobre Ecosistemas Mediterráneos, donde varios chilenos están exponiendo. “Hemos estado conversando mucho este tema”, cuenta Aníbal Pauchard, del Laboratorio de Invasiones Biológicas de la U. de Concepción. “Esperamos tener una declaración conjunta que ayude a mostrar el consenso que existe en el mundo científico: que independientemente de que toda vegetación sea susceptible a incendios forestales, la única manera de poder reducir la probabilidad y la magnitud de estos eventos es la planificación territorial con bases científicas y participación ciudadana. Eso es que haya un mosaico saludable de distintos usos de suelo (bosque nativo, agrícola, plantaciones forestales, etc.) pero bien pensado y manejado para mejorar el bienestar de todos los habitantes del territorio”.

Para Andrés Fuentes, del Laboratorio de Biometría de la U. de La Frontera, la confusión se produce cuando se cruzan intereses económicos que buscan proteger un sector importante (y poderoso) de la economía. “En general la industria forestal no se hace cargo de las externalidades negativas que producen sus procesos productivos”.

Juan Armesto, profesor de la UC e investigador del Instituto Milenio de Ecología y Biodiversidad, cree que hay que enfocarse en “diseñar un paisaje con mayor resiliencia que el que nos ha conducido a esta catástrofe”. En ese contexto, hay que aceptar que la industria maderera es necesaria, y que más que su existencia es su funcionamiento el que se debe que cuestionar: “Hay que tener plantaciones forestales, ya que los muebles, el material para celulosa, etc., tiene que salir de alguna parte”, dice Lohengrin Cavieres, investigador de la U. de Concepción.

Una de las claves para esto es, más allá de las ganancias monetarias, valorar los beneficios del bosque nativo para nuestro país en el largo plazo como un reservorio de agua en las cuencas hidrográficas y hábitat para la fauna silvestre, el control de la erosión y la sedimentación, por su uso recreacional para el ecoturismo, sus bienes no maderables y sus servicios ambientales. “Si estos bienes tuvieran un valor económico más alto que la madera o la pulpa, seguramente sería un buen negocio establecer bosques nativos, como los incentivos que actualmente existen para los bonos de carbono. Los gobiernos deberían generar políticas orientadas a restablecer nuestro patrimonio forestal prístino”, dice el profesor de la Facultad de Geografía UC, Mauricio Calderón.

La Premio Nacional de Ciencias 2010 y directora del Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad, Mary Kalin, afirma que al final del día los consensos requieren que todos los actores relevantes se sienten en la misma mesa en un ambiente de confianza mutua. Actualmente, cree que hay una suerte de resquemor entre los empresarios del rubro forestal y los científicos, “como si a estos últimos les importara poco el desarrollo del país y es muy por el contrario. Nuestro sentido de territorio es profundo y bien intencionado. Como sociedad, tenemos que encontrar formas para reducir los daños sociales, biológicos y económicos de los incendios. Es alentador que el Ministerio del Medio Ambiente haya puesto a las especies con problemas de conservación entre las prioridades del recién establecido ‘Comité Nacional de Restauración Ecológica’, pero es imprescindible que tengamos mejores datos sobre el efecto biológico de los incendios a largo plazo, que repensemos el paisaje, y emprendamos una campaña educativa”.

De los 32 expertos entrevistados, 25 afirmaron con seguridad que el abuso de los monocultivos exóticos sí es un factor importante en los incendios forestales. “Yo emplazo a la gente que llega y opina a un debate público. Para hablar de esto hay que poner estudios sobre la mesa”, dice Antonio Lara, profesor de la UACH e investigador del (CR)2. “Bajo el escenario de cambio climático actual los megaincendios seguirán ocurriendo, por lo que el diálogo entre los distintos actores es ineludible”, agrega Mauro González.

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