Presentación del Instituto Forestal (INFOR) precisó la necesidad de establecer monitoreo de largo plazo y un trabajo interinstitucional.


Con las palabras del director ejecutivo del Instituto Forestal (INFOR), Fernando Rosselot Téllez se dio el vamos al seminario “Agua y sistemas forestales: un desafío para la sustentabilidad del país”, que organizó el Colegio de Ingenieros Forestales, la Universidad de Talca y el Comité Chileno para el Programa Hidrológico Internacional de la Unesco.


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En la oportunidad, el director de INFOR – organismo adscrito al Ministerio de Agricultura- dijo que “las plantaciones forestales y los recursos hídricos juegan un importante rol en el desarrollo económico, social y ambiental de nuestro país.”


En esa línea, Rosselot destacó que la institución que dirige se encuentra desarrollando un sistemas de monitoreo a nivel nacional, en una primera etapa orientada en cuencas pequeñas, dentro del marco de desarrollo de una línea de investigación orientada a los bosques y el agua, lo que permitirá tener información estandarizada y de largo plazo.


“El foco de INFOR para los próximos años estará puesto en determinar este balance en las pequeñas cuencas entre las regiones del Maule y Los Lagos”, manifestó.


Por otra parte, el desarrollo de la visión panorámica acerca de la relación entre el recurso hídrico, los sistemas forestales y sus implicancias en el cambio climático fue dado a conocer por el investigador del INFOR, Dr. Cristián Little, quién afirmó que “los estudios predicen que en la zona centro sur de Chile los escenarios de cambio climático serán desfavorables, ya que la disminución de las precipitaciones proyectada afectaría directamente al régimen hídrico de las cuencas. Basta monitorear por un tiempo una cuenca hidrográfica determinada para apreciar dichos cambios”.


El investigador, quien además es académico de la Universidad Austral de Chile, aludió al impacto de las plantaciones de rápido crecimiento en la reducción de los caudales, precisando que hay suficientes investigaciones nacionales e internacionales que permiten entregar resultados concluyentes respecto a la disminución de los caudales en los cursos de agua en cuencas pequeñas. “La cantidad y calidad de agua de una cuenca –señaló- depende de muchas variables, como procesos químicos y biológicos, la cantidad de precipitaciones, tamaño de las cuencas, etc., y para entender los efectos que cada una tiene sobre el agua, hay que componer métodos eficientes de estudio”.


Respecto del impacto que tendrían las plantaciones forestales al afectar el balance hídrico a nivel de cuenca, Little determinó que es un tema complejo sobre el que se necesita avanzar en coordinar los esfuerzos aislados de monitoreo para entender otros fenómenos, como por ejemplo los del manejo forestal.


El experto argumentó que existen estudios en diversas cuencas forestales en Chile, pero que los resultados que se generan hay que darlos a conocer de manera adecuada, refiriéndose a que los estudios realizados en grandes cuencas como las que monitorea la Dirección General de Aguas, no son comparables con aquellos realizados en cuencas pequeñas como la que abastecen a los Comités de Agua Potable Rural.


Además sentenció que “no en todas se pueden inferir conclusiones respecto del problema que se genera entre la oferta de agua, por parte de las cuencas, y la demanda, por parte de los usuarios. Para tener resultados efectivos se precisa sentar las bases de la cuantificación de este balance, un monitoreo a largo plazo, considerando variables asociadas al cambio climático y a los temas sociales relacionados al agua. Ello con un trabajo interinstitucional y proyectos específicos que permitan con urgencia avanzar en el tema”.

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