Expansión de plantaciones exóticas y efectos en el agua…

christian-littleDespués de casi 40 años de fomento por parte del Estado a la producción forestal, a través del DL 701 promulgado el año 1974. ¿Se están considerando los bien conocidos impactos positivos y negativos que ha tenido el sector forestal en el “desarrollo” del país?, ¿Cuál es la sustentabilidad ambiental y social de la proyección?, ¿Las hectáreas susceptibles de ser plantadas deben serlo exclusivamente con especies exóticas? y ¿Por qué no extensas plantaciones con especies nativas para recuperar los bosques del pasado?

Diversos estudios advierten reiteradamente de los impactos ambientales en las zonas donde se concentra la actividad forestal. Por ejemplo para la región del Bío- Bío, se estima que existen 490 mil hectáreas susceptibles de ser plantadas, especialmente en la Depresión Intermedia y cordillera de La Costa. Allí ocurre un gran proceso de expansión de la industria forestal con especies exóticas (pino y eucalipto principalmente) y donde los aportes científicos de las últimas décadas, advierten sobre las consecuencias que ha tenido el reemplazo de los bosques nativos por las plantaciones de rápido crecimiento, no sólo en pérdida de biodiversidad, sino que además, cambios en el balance hídrico que ha significado una disminución de hasta un 40% de los caudales de verano, época de mayor demanda del agua para otros sistemas productivos que dependen de su uso, tales como los sistemas agropecuarios, actividad turística, entre otros.

De seguir el ejemplo y aplicarse en nuestra región de Los Ríos, podría agravar los reportes de los ya numerosos casos de comunidades que en verano literalmente se quedaron sin agua.

Actualmente la principal política de fomento forestal es a través del Decreto Ley 701, que concentra sus beneficios en las plantaciones exóticas, en contraste con los limitados montos entregados vía Ley de Bosque Nativo, la que además tiene una baja ejecución presupuestaria.

En un escenario de cambio climático donde se proyecta un incremento de la temperatura y una disminución de la precipitaciones, y donde la actividad forestal tiene un claro impacto en el bienestar social y ambiental de nuestro país, debe impulsarse nuevos aires a la actividad forestal que promueva la restauración de los bosques nativos a gran escala, permitirá recuperar no tan sólo la biodiversidad sino también el agua. La evidencia científica así lo indica.

En este sentido se debe hacer un esfuerzo conjunto público/privado en precisar la posibilidad de incrementar la superficie de bosque nativo en Chile, a fin de evitar conflictos en el largo plazo, donde las demandas por el uso del territorio son múltiples y donde la producción de madera debe ser compatible con la oferta y demanda de otros bienes y servicios que prestan los ecosistemas.

Por Christian Little

Encargado de Modelamiento Hidrológico

Innova Cuencas APR – UACh

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